Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Growing Potatoes at Burge Organic Farm


Hey Growers,


I thought this was an excellent article about growing potatoes here in Georgia. Article courtesy of Georgia Organics. One of us should think about writing an article on crop speciality we've mastered. Let me know if you like these type articles and I'll include them when I find them.

Enjoy,
Justin


Growing Potatoes at Burge Organic Farm

April 04, 2012
Corey Mosser
Burge Organic Farm
Mansfield, GA

Oh, the humble potato.  It’s often considered a beginner’s crop- one that isn’t technically challenging to grow with little need for any additional inputs after planting. While it’s true the potato is a hardy and vivacious plant, it comes with its own difficulties.  Truth be told, it’s not hard to grow good potatoes. However, with a little additional effort and planning you can grow (and sell) GREAT potatoes.

The first year I planted potatoes in Savannah; I planted 300# of seed potatoes late in the season in a boggy field and was treated to two solid weeks of rain. EVERY potato seed rotted. Ouch.  Subsequent years have afforded experiences with black rot, early sprouting and windfall crops of potato beetles.  All of that is to say that the following advice is not from someone who has it figured out, but rather it has been accrued by someone banging his head against the wall. Repeatedly. 

For starters, we try to grow the right varieties that match the needs of our farm and our markets. For us, that means having the widest variety over a long period of time. Just like many other vegetables, some potatoes are better suited to long-term storage, and others are more perishable.  Storage life of a potatoe can range from 6 weeks to 6 monts depending on variety and storage conditions. A good tool for identifying potato varieties is Washington State University’s Comprehensive List .  We try to plant about  10% in early potatoes, 20% fingerlings (They are significantly more expensive and don’t hold well in storage, but they are a great way to start the season), 40% Midseason varieties and 40% Storage types.

We order our potatoes in December to assure availability, and we try to find sources that ship from the southeast since shipping heavy potatoes gets pricy. Last year we planted just under an acre in potatoes and ordered around 800#. We ended up with a harvest of around 5000#. This year we are planting 10 varieties totaling 2500# on three acres and we hope to harvest between 15,000 to 20,000 pounds (it makes me a little nervous just to write that number…)! Below is a table showing the varieties we planted this year, along with the harvest period and storage ability:

 

Planting


Many folks get confused about cutting and pre-sprouting potatoes.  On average, you want to have a cut potato piece to weigh roughly 2 oz., and contain at least 3 eyes.  Potatoes begin to sprout from the top-down, also known as apical dominance, which basically means the sprouts form on the part of the potato that is furthest from the stem side, or the original connection to the mother plant. Because of this, you can generally cut your pieces quickly by just slicing along the longitudinal axis, although with longer varieties such as russets this will create a greater surface area and predispose you to a greater risk of early rot. We wait until our seed potatoes have just started to sprout before cutting, and then we wait another 3-4 days before planting to allow the wound to heal. If you allow your sprouts to become too large before planting, you risk them breaking of in the planting process and you might have just as well planted unsprouted potatoes.

While it is true that cutting and planting your potatoes in pieces is generally associated with greater yields, there are other factors to consider, including the amount of labor required to hand cut your spuds. Depending on the size of the potatoes and the amount we are going to plant, we may or may not cut our potatoes. This year for example, because we had a large amount of potatoes to plant and a very short window available, we chose to cut only a small portion of our planting stock.

We schedule to plant at the end of February all the way thru March depending on the weather. We dig a furrow and then use a waterwheel transplanter without the wheel to plant the field. It’s only a little faster than three people planting on their hands and knees, but it saves a lot in fatigue. We then cover the potatoes lightly either by raking them in, or by doing a light pass with the tiller to collapse the tops of the furrows. Plants do fine and continue sprouting underground even in cold and snow. Above ground growth will die off, but the plant often continues from the tuber.

Diseases, Pests and Weeds


Potatoes enjoy well-drained, more alkaline soils (basically the opposite of most Georgia soil). Scab disease is much more prolific in acidic soil, so try to lime accordingly the winter before planting your crop. Last year we planted in two different sections- a bottom and a sandy hillside. We had some significant early spring rains last year, and several of the potato cuttings planted in the bottoms rotted in the ground, while those planted on the hill did great.  The bottom line is, they don’t like wet feet. Rotate accordingly.  Potatoes are also a fairly heavy feeder, so we usually prepare the soil with a light dusting of composted chicken manure, and we side-dress twice more as the plant grows. 

One reason I enjoy growing potatoes is that it’s one of the only true row crops that we grow, and instead of weeding, we hill. I can’t tell you how satisfying it is to be able to grow a crop and not ever have to run a wheel hoe through it. Now if only I could find a way to do it with onions…  Being able to bury a bunch of weeds is not only deeply satisfying; it also saves valuable time during the spring when you need it most. Hilling the plants also allows them to continue to produce tubers, although it has to be done early enough to make a difference. We usually hill twice during the season once the plants are 8” or so above the ground. We try to bury the plant just so that the top 3-4” are showing on the surface.

As far as insect control goes the only real problem, obviously, is the potato beetle. They can decimate plants in a bad year (last year was pretty bad for us), but more importantly they are vectors for blight, as well as other diseases. We usually make field notes and if we see more than on average 1 bug per plant, we consider it a problem that needs controlling. The key is to get them in the larval stage. Once they have the harder shell of an adult beetle (2-3 weeks from the time they appear), they are harder to control and they will go about their business immediately producing the 2nd generation that can be even more populous than the first. We use Entrust (it’s high-concentrate Spinosad so it doesn’t interfere with beneficial organisms and doesn’t create leaching issues) and it works extremely well in our experience when used correctly. The biggest trouble is that it is ridiculously expensive (1# for over $500!), but a little bit goes a long way, and it does control a whole host of insects. For last year’s crop, we only sprayed twice and each time we used around 1/2 ounce per acre. (Entrust comes in 4- ¼# bags, so I suggest going in with a couple of other farmers- we use way less than 1/4# per year).

Harvest and Storage


Ok, now your plants are big and beautiful and weeded and bug free. Now you get to watch them die… Correctly harvesting and then storing your crop is the most important stage of producing potatoes, second only to proper variety and site selection.  It is tempting to pick potatoes as the plants start to wilt, but we restrict ourselves to harvesting no more than 15% of the total crop as “new potatoes”.  New potatoes can be harvested from about the time the plant begins to flower.  You can plan on losing a between a third to a quarter of your yield by harvesting young potatoes.  Average maturity for potatoes ranges from 80 days for fingerlings and new potatoes to 120 days for later maturing and storage varieties.  For our main crop, we wait to make sure the plants are completely dead before digging. Most commercial growers mow the tops off of their potatoes to allow the vines to die down more quickly, and we may try it this year. We’ve found that if the tubers are allowed to fully develop underground, the skins seem to not to scrape off as easily during harvest and are able to store longer. The other important factor is to harvest the potatoes when it is as dry as possible. Wet weather not only makes digging the potatoes more of a chore, but it also can contribute to storage rot. In the past, we’ve done a mixture of hand harvesting, combined with an initial run-through with a sub-soiler outfitted with a large furrower.  Last year, it took almost 75 labor hours to harvest our crop, which takes place in June, when time is really at a premium. Our interns reported this was one of the most miserable jobs of their stay. It can be a pain, especially when done by hand.

This year we are very excited about our newest piece of farm equipment- a PTO-driven conveyor potato digger. Like our transplanter, we are sharing this piece of equipment with a neighboring farm, which helps out tremendously as far as cost is concerned (as an aside, this is something I think that farmers should really do more often, it has allowed us to grow more efficiently and work cooperatively with our neighbors).  Although I have only used it so far to dig some over-wintered beets, I highly recommend it as an addition to a medium-size operation. Also, it is able to harvest sweet potatoes, onions, peanuts and turnips as well. We are estimating that it will pay for itself within one season. In addition, the model we decided on has a stand-alone PTO-driven hydraulic pump and motor, which is a handy power source that can be easily removed and retrofitted for other purposes (we are working on designing a drip tape winder as well as a row-cover remover, which will save additional time).  

Once the potatoes are unearthed and sorted, we store them unwashed in ¾ bushel boxes (or ½ bushel for fingerlings and new potatoes). We allow the potatoes to cure in our barn for about a week before we place them in our cool room at 55 degrees. After another week, we reduce the temperature to between 45-42 degrees (I read somewhere that gradually reducing the temperature allows the potatoes to maintain dormancy over a longer period of time).  During the hottest summer months, we run a fan on the potatoes to try to mitigate the heat let in by opening the doors repeatedly. We also will go through boxes on a regular basis to determine if the potatoes have begun to sprout. Fingerlings can last about 2 months in the cooler, whereas longer storage varieties like Canela can last up to 6 months. Last year, most of our potatoes started to sprout in September, and we are hoping to be able to hold them until November this year by handling them more delicately during harvest.  If your potatoes do sprout, you can try to hold on to them for next year’s planting by reducing the temperature slightly.  A fellow farmer suggested that we try to overwinter some sprouted potatoes in one of our hoophouses, and after dying back a couple of times, the plants have sprung back and are almost mature and are now yielding beautiful new potatoes just in time for market!

Well, that’s it; I hope that you find some of this information helpful.  Hopefully, you’ve done everything right and now all you have to do is worry about selling your bountiful harvest (which we all know is no problem at all, right?). This year we’ve gone spud crazy are planting more than 3 acres of potatoes, so I’m sure I will have a 30-page addendum to this article next year available entitled “Up To My Eyes In Spuds: Why You Should Never Grow Too Many Potatoes”.  I wish all of you a wonderful year of heavy harvests and light weeds!

 

Suggested Seed Sources



New Sprout Organic Farms
www.newsproutfarms.com
(contact: Micheal Porterfield)

Wood Prairie Farm
www.woodprarie.com

FEDCO Seeds/MooseTubers
www.fedcoseeds.com

Potato Garden
www.potatogarden.com

Burge Organic Farm in Masnfield, GA grows diverse and delicious varieties of fruits and vegetables year-round on 16 acres of intensively managed cropland.
 

Next Farmers Network Meeting - 2 weeks from Today


Our April 24th Get-Together is at Taylor Creek Farms
The tour will feature a discussion of Certified Naturally Grown, using a bed shaper, 
pastured hens, planting calendars, CSA planning, using soil block starter mix, and more.

Hey Local Growers,

Just wanted to send everybody a reminder that our next Georgia Mountains Farmers Network get-together is exactly two weeks from today on Tuesday, April 24 starting at 5pm. Hope you can make it.

I'm very excited about this get-together featuring farm hosts Chuck and Michele Taylor of Taylor Creek Farms near Toccoa. I think everyone is going to be impressed with the farming operation they've built in just the last year and half. One great idea for this tour was to have us all complete a CERTIFIED NATURALLY GROWN inspection form during the tour. Not only will this familiarize all of us with the Certified Naturally Grown process, but walking through this process is a great way to learn and understand pretty much every aspect of someone's farm. Then we'll be able to submit the inspection forms afterwards so that Chuck and Michele can be CNG certified for the 2012 growing year.

Some of the other features of the farm tour:
  • Using a bed shaper
  • Using a homemade electrical conduit bender to make row cover hoops (see photo above)
  • Soil block transplants – mini, 2-inch, 4-inch
  • Starter mixer and sifter (see photos below)
  • How to set up an annual planting calendar (and plan a CSA)
  • Innovative surface water pump
  • Wood ash as treatment for keeping away cabbage maggot flies

After the tour we'll have a POTLUCK DINNER. If you can, bring a dish, and send a quick announcement of what you're bringing so we can have a good diversity of yummy stuff. Everyone will need to bring your own fold out chairs. It seemed like the "Bring your own plate, utensils and cups thing" worked so well last time we'll repeat that. Then we'll have three wash tubs to scrub up your stuff before taking home. We'll have water to drink, but if you want a tastier beverage better bring it along too. We'll have napkins, and a few plates and cups for those who forgot (we may have a small donation cup for these).

After DINNER, we'll have our NETWORK MEETING and discuss future collaboration opportunities. We'll review that PRIORITIES list we developed (click here to review these). We might refine or add to these. Then we'll focus on details for a GEORGIA MOUNTAINS FARM TOUR coming up likely the end of June (probably June 30th and July 1st). If you're interested in having your farm participate in this event please let me know as I'm starting to compile a list of participating farms. We'll discuss all the details at the meeting, or you can take a look at an outline posted on the Network website here.

The address for Taylor Creek Farms is:

2204 Sunshine Rd
Toccoa, GA 30577

That's 21 miles from Clarkesville or 38 miles from Clayton. If you're willing to help form a carpool just post to the list.


That's about it. Hope everyone can make it.


Justin Ellis
Soque Lover Gardens
706-499-2261 (cell)
&
Organizer for
Georgia Mountain Farmers Network




Monday, April 9, 2012

Free small, beginning farmer Workshop in Dillard - May 10th

Hey Growers,


I'm not that familiar with TAG but wanted to post this workshop in case you might be interested. And lunch is included.


Justin


TAG - Team Agriculture Georgia
SPRING WORKSHOP
Thursday May 10, 2012
TEAM AGRICULTURE GEORGIA (TAG) is hosting a
FREE ONE-DAY WORKSHOP 
FOR SMALL, BEGINNING, AND LIMITED RESOURCE FARMERS
Dillard House • 768 Franklin Street • Dillard, GA 30537 • 706-746-5348



Proposed Workshop Topics
  • Fish and Wildlife Management 
  • Farmer’s Markets
  • Organics
  • Financing Small Farms
  • Value Added / Winery & Vineyards 
  • Farm Success Stories
  • Small Ruminants 
  • Farm Bill Resources
  • Farm to School Program

 Schedule

Registration & Exhibits    7:00 am to 8:00am
Welcome                         8:00 am to 8:25 am
Workshop Session 1       8:30 am to 9:30 am
Workshop Session 2       9:45 am to10:45 am
Workshop Session 3     11:00 am to12:00 pm 
Lunch                             12:00 pm to 1:30 pm
Workshop Session 4        1:30 pm to 2:30 pm


Luncheon Topic:  Georgia Grown Program Re-Launch
To reserve exhibit space contact Mary Kiley at mkiley@aggeorgia.com  
• Phone: 770-536-3660 ext. 374 
Note: Program is subject to change
Visit www.teamaggeorgia.com for more information

Tuesday, April 3, 2012

Northeast Georgia Locally Grown launches Regular Season on Easter Sunday

Hey Local Growers,

Remember, if you have any events coming up that you'd like to promote we can post them here and then you can use the link to the post to help you advertise to others. Here's one for the Locally Grown market. Please forward to anyone you'd like to turn on to local food.

Northeast Georgia Locally Grown

launches Regular Season on Easter Sunday

The Northeast Georgia Locally Grown online farmers market will kick off the beginning of its third weekly schedule season beginning this Easter evening at 9pm. Each Sunday night from now until Christmas anywhere from 20-30 local farmers and food producers located throughout the Northeast Georgia region will post their availability of fresh vegetables, herbs, baked goods, eggs, meats, flowers, seeds, plants, honey, dairy products and much, much more to the over 400 customers that currently subscribe to the market announcements.

Started in April of 2010, the Northeast Georgia Locally Grown market was patterned after a similar market in Athens in which farmers post photographs, descriptions, and prices of their available products on a website where customers can choose the products they’d like from farms throughout the region. All the orders are completed on the website between Sunday evening at 9pm until Monday at 9pm. Farmers receive their orders on Tuesday and pick vegetables or bake goods fresh for delivery on Wednesday evenings between 5-7pm. Then customers pick the items up at one of two regional pick-up locations, one at the Grace Calvary church office in Clarkesville, and another at Mill Gap Farm in Tiger just outside Clayton.

“This system really works well in a rural community because it consolidates a lot of food from a lot of different farms in one location,” says Justin Ellis who co-manages the market for the Clarkesville pick-up site. “For farmers it removes all of the risk typically involved in going to market, because they know exactly what they’ve sold in advance. For customers, they can find a broad diversity of foods from numerous farms, and they know the items are super fresh and from farms that are practicing sustainable agriculture.”

The Locally Grown market has grown steadily over the last two years selling over $70,000 worth of food, with all sales directly benefiting local farmers. Each year the number of farms and diversity of products has increased. The market is also year round, but keeps an every other week schedule in the winter. Fresh vegetables represent the bulk of sales, and are available the whole year round now that numerous farms in the region are using greenhouses. Two of the newest farms to join Locally Grown are a grassfed beef operation called Gibson Farms and located about 30 miles from Clarkesville and Clayton in Westminster, SC, and a cow’s milk dairy called Mountain Fresh Creamery located just 18 miles from Clarkesville in Clermont, GA. This opening week will mark the first time that cow’s milk, cream and butter have been available through the market. Once each month the pickup locations will also have a featured farmer to chat with customers about their products.

“We’re extremely excited about this new season,” says Ellis. “The market has slowly been growing via word of mouth, and we hope that this year the interest in local foods will be even greater.” In a survey to customers last year customers were asked to describe the qualities they liked best about locally grown and responses were: delicious; greater shelf life; helping local farmers; meet others who like being “green”; healthier eating habits; convenient; ease of ordering; variety of products; quality of products; efficient and organized; knowing where food comes from; weekly messages; and enthusiasm of volunteers. To further promote local foods and farms, there are plans to host a Georgia Mountains Farm Tour in late June early July to encourage people to learn exactly how these local farms are producing local foods. The Locally Grown market is sponsored by the Soque River Watershed Association with a goal to increase the production and consumption of sustainably produced goods, and to increase the public’s awareness of environmental and economic benefits associated with local, land-based businesses. For more information or to place an order visit the market website at http://northeastgeorgia.locallygrown.net or also find the link from www.soque.org.